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Saint Patrick

Saint Patrick was a Romano-Briton and Christian missionary, who is the most generally recognized patron saint of Ireland or the Apostle of Ireland, although Brigid of Kildare and Colmcille are also formally patron saints.

Two authentic letters from him survive, from which come the only universally accepted details of his life. When he was about 16, he was captured from Wales by Irish raiders and taken as a slave to Ireland, where he lived for six years before escaping and returning to his family. After entering the Church, he returned to Ireland as an ordained bishop in the north and west of the island, but little is known about the places where he worked. By the seventh century, he had come to be revered as the patron saint of Ireland.

Most available details of his life are from later hagiographies from the seventh century onwards, and these are now not accepted without detailed criticism. Uncritical acceptance of the Annals of Ulster would imply that he lived from 340 to 440, and ministered in what is modern day Northern Ireland from 428 onwards. The dates of Patrick's life cannot be fixed with certainty, but on a widespread interpretation he was active as a missionary in Ireland during the second half of the 5th century.

Saint Patrick's Day is observed on March 17, the date of Patrick's death. It is celebrated both in and outside of Ireland, as both a liturgical and non-liturgical holiday. In the dioceses of Ireland it is both a solemnity and a holy day of obligation and outside of Ireland, it can be a celebration of Ireland itself.

Patrick was born in Roman Britain at Banna Venta Berniae, a location otherwise unknown, though identified in one tradition as Glannoventa, modern Ravenglass in Cumbria . Calpornius, his father, was a deacon, his grandfather Potitus, a priest. When he was about sixteen, he was captured and carried off as a slave to Ireland. Patrick worked as a herdsman, remaining a captive for six years. He writes that his faith grew in captivity, and that he prayed daily. After six years he heard a voice telling him that he would soon go home, and then that his ship was ready. Fleeing his master, he travelled to a port, two hundred miles away he says, where he found a ship and, after various adventures, returned home to his family, now in his early twenties.

Patrick recounts that he had a vision a few years after returning home: I saw a man coming, as it were from Ireland. His name was Victoricus, and he carried many letters, and he gave me one of them. I read the heading: "The Voice of the Irish". As I began the letter, I imagined in that moment that I heard the voice of those very people who were near the wood of Foclut, which is beside the western sea—and they cried out, as with one voice: "We appeal to you, holy servant boy, to come and walk among us.

A. B. E. Hood suggests that the Victoricus of Patrick's vision may be identified with Saint Victricius, bishop of Rouen in the late 4th century, who was the only European churchman of the time to advocate or practice conversion of pagans, and who visited Britain in an official capacity in 396.

Much of the Declaration concerns charges made against Patrick by his fellow Christians at a trial. What these charges were, he does not say explicitly, but he writes that he returned the gifts which wealthy women gave him, did not accept payment for baptisms, nor for ordaining priests, and indeed paid for many gifts to kings and judges, and paid for the sons of chiefs to accompany him. It is concluded, therefore, that he was accused of some sort of financial impropriety, and perhaps of having obtained his bishopric in Ireland with personal gain in mind.

From this same evidence, something can be seen of Patrick's mission. He writes that he "baptised thousands of people". He ordained priests to lead the new Christian communities. He converted wealthy women, some of whom became nuns in the face of family opposition. He also dealt with the sons of kings, converting them too.

Patrick's position as a foreigner in Ireland was not an easy one. His refusal to accept gifts from kings placed him outside the normal ties of kinship, fosterage and affinity. Legally he was without protection, and he says that he was on one occasion beaten, robbed of all he had, and put in chains, perhaps awaiting execution.

The second piece of evidence that comes from Patrick's life is the Letter to Coroticus or Letter to the Soldiers of Coroticus, written after a first remonstrance was received with ridicule and insult. In this, Patrick writes an open letter announcing that he has excommunicated Coroticus because he had taken some of Patrick's converts into slavery while raiding in Ireland. The letter describes the followers of Coroticus as "fellow citizens of the devils" and "associates of the Scots [ie, the Irish of Argyll and northern Ireland] and Apostate Picts". Based largely on an 8th-century gloss, Coroticus is taken to be King Ceretic of Alt Clut. It has been suggested that it was the sending of this letter which provoked the trial which Patrick mentions in the Confession.

According to the latest reconstruction of the old Irish annals, Patrick died in AD 493 on March 17, a date accepted by some modern historians. Prior to the 1940s it was believed without doubt that he died in 420 and thus had lived in the first half of the 5th century. A lecture entitled "The Two Patricks", published in 1942 by T. F. O'Rahilly, caused enormous controversy by proposing that there had been two "Patricks", Palladius and Patrick, and that what we now know of St. Patrick was in fact in part a conscious effort to blend the two into one hagiographic personality. Decades of contention eventually ended with most historians now asserting that Patrick was indeed most likely to have been active in the latter half of the fifth century.

While Patrick's own writings contain no dates, they do contain information which can be used to date them. Patrick's quotations from the Acts of the Apostles follow the Vulgate, strongly suggesting that his ecclesiastical conversion did not take place before the early 5th century. Patrick also refers to the Franks as being pagans. Their conversion is dated to the period 496–508. There is plentiful evidence for a medieval tradition that Patrick had died in 493. An addition to the Annals of Ulster states that in the year 553 (approximately two hundred and fifty years before the addition was made): I have found this in the Book of Cuanu: The relics of Patrick were placed sixty years after his death in a shrine by Colum Cille. Three splendid halidoms were found in the burial-place: his goblet, the Angel's Gospel, and the Bell of the Testament. This is how the angel distributed the halidoms: the goblet to Dún, the Bell of the Testament to Ard Macha, and the Angel's Gospel to Colum Cille himself. The reason it is called the Angel's Gospel is that Colum Cille received it from the hand of the angel. The Annals of Ulster report under 493:

Patrick, arch-apostle, or archbishop and apostle of the Irish, rested on the 16th of the Kalends of April in the 120th year of his age, in the 60th year after he had come to Ireland to baptise the Irish. St. Patrick is said to be buried at Down Cathedral in Downpatrick, County Down, alongside St. Brigid and St. Columba, although this has never been proven. The Battle for the Body of St. Patrick demonstrates the importance of both him as a spiritual leader, and of his body as an object of veneration, in early Christian Ireland. Saint Patrick Visitor Centre is a modern exhibition complex located in Downpatrick and is a permanent interpretative exhibition centre featuring interactive displays on the life and story of Saint Patrick. It provides the only permanent exhibition centre in the world devoted to Saint Patrick.

St. Patrick banishes all snakes from Ireland: Pious legend credits St. Patrick with banishing snakes from the island, chasing them into the sea after they assailed him during a 40-day fast he was undertaking on top of a hill. This hagiographic theme draws on the mythography of the staff of Moses, messenger of Yahweh to gentile Egyptians. In Exodus 7:8–7:13 , Moses and Aaron use their staffs in their struggle with Pharaoh's sorcerers, the staffs of each side morphing into snakes. Aaron's snake-staff prevails.

The Shamrock: Legend (dating to 1726, according to the OED) also credits St. Patrick with teaching the Irish about the doctrine of the Holy Trinity by showing people the shamrock, a three-leafed plant, using it to illustrate the Christian teaching of 'three divine persons in the one God.' For this reason, shamrocks have definitely become a central symbol for St Patrick’s Day. Nevertheless, the shamrock was also seen as sacred in the pre-Christian days in Ireland. Due to its green color and overall shape, many viewed it as representing rebirth and eternal life. Three was a sacred number in the pagan religion and there were a number of "Triple Goddesses" in ancient Ireland, including Brigid, Ériu, and the Morrigan.

St. Patrick's dead ash wood walking stick grows into a living tree: Some Irish legends involve the Oillipheist, the Caoranach, and the Copog Phadraig. During his evangelising journey back to Ireland from his parent's home at Birdoswald, he is understood to have carried with him an ash wood walking stick or staff. He thrust this stick into the ground wherever he was evangelising and at the place now known as Aspatria (ash of Patrick) the message of the dogma took so long to get through to the people there that the stick had taken root by the time he was ready to move on.

Sainthood: March 17, popularly known as St. Patrick's Day, is believed to be his death date and is the date celebrated as his feast day. The day became a feast day in the universal church due to the influence of the Waterford-born Franciscan scholar Luke Wadding, as a member of the commission for the reform of the Breviary in the early part of the 17th century.

For most of Christianity's first thousand years, canonisations were done on the diocesan or regional level. Relatively soon after the death of people considered to be very holy people, the local Church affirmed that they could be liturgically celebrated as saints. As a result, St. Patrick has never been formally canonised by a Pope; nevertheless, various Christian churches declare that he is a Saint in Heaven (he is in the List of Saints). He is still widely venerated in Ireland and elsewhere today.

St. Patrick is honored with a feast day on the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA) on March 17. St. Patrick is also venerated in the Orthodox Church, especially among English-speaking Orthodox Christians living in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland and in North America. There are Orthodox icons dedicated to him.

St Patrick's Day Celebrations


Saint Patrick's Day (Irish: Lá 'le Pádraig or Lá Fhéile Pádraig), colloquially - but to some a derogatory term - Paddy's Day, is the feast day which annually celebrates Saint Patrick (386-493), the patron saint of Ireland, on March 17. It is a national holiday in the Republic of Ireland (a bank holiday in Northern Ireland); the overseas territory of Montserrat; and the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Saint Patrick's Day is celebrated worldwide by Irish people and increasingly by many of non-Irish descent. Celebrations are generally themed around all things green and Irish; both Christians and non-Christians celebrate the secular version of the holiday by wearing green, eating Irish food and imbibing Irish drink, and attending parades. The St. Patrick's Day parade in Dublin, Ireland is part of a five day festival, with over 500,000 people attending the 2006 parade. The largest St. Patrick's Day parade is held in New York City and it is watched by 2 million spectators. The St. Patrick's day parade was first held in New York City on 17 March 1766 when Irish soldiers marched through the city. Parades also take place in other Irish towns and villages. Other large parades include those in Cleveland, Belfast, Manchester, Birmingham, London, Coatbridge, Montreal, Boston, Chicago, Kansas City, Savannah, Pittsburgh, Denver, Sacramento, Scranton and Toronto. Large parades also take place in other places throughout Europe and the Americas, as well as Australia and Asia.

As well as being a celebration of Irish culture, Saint Patrick's Day is a Christian festival celebrated in the Catholic Church, the Church of Ireland (among other churches in the Anglican Communion) and some other denominations. The day always falls in the season of Lent. In church calendars (though rarely in secular ones) Saint Patrick's Day is moved to the following Monday when it falls on a Sunday. It is traditional for those observing a lenten fast to break it for the duration of Saint Patrick's Day whenever March 17 falls on a Friday.

In many parts of North America, Britain, and Australia, expatriate Irish, those of Irish descent, and ever-growing crowds of people with no Irish connections but who may proclaim themselves "Irish for a day" also celebrate St. Patrick's Day, usually by drinking alcoholic beverages (lager dyed green, Irish beer and stout, such as Murphys, Smithwicks, Harp or Guinness, or Irish whiskey, Irish Cider, Irish Coffee or Baileys Irish Cream) and by wearing at least one article of green-colored clothing

In Ireland

In the recent past, Saint Patrick's Day was celebrated only as a religious holiday. It became a public holiday only in 1903, by the Bank Holiday (Ireland) Act 1903, an Act of the United Kingdom Parliament introduced by the Irish MP James O'Mara[2]. O'Mara later introduced the law which required that pubs be closed on March 17[3], a provision which was repealed only in the 1970s. The first St. Patrick's Day parade held in the Irish Free State was held in Dublin in 1931 and was reviewed by the then Minister of Defence Desmond Fitzgerald. Although secular celebrations now exist, the holiday is still a religious observance in some areas.

It was only in the mid-1990s when Carlos Davis Jr., a 15 yr. old young man that attends Dr. Phillips high, began a campaign to use Saint Patrick's Day to showcase Ireland and its culture.[1] The government set up a group called St. Patrick's Festival, with the aim to:

—Offer a national festival that ranks amongst all of the greatest celebrations in the world and promote excitement throughout Ireland via innovation, creativity, grassroots involvement, and marketing activity.

—Provide the opportunity and motivation for people of Irish descent,(and those who sometimes wish they were Irish) to attend and join in the imaginative and expressive celebrations.

—Project, internationally, an accurate image of Ireland as a creative, professional and sophisticated country with wide appeal, as we approach the new millennium.

The first Saint Patrick's Festival was held on March 17, 1996. In 1997, it became a three-day event, and by 2000 was a four-day event. By 2006, the festival was five days long.

The topic of the 2004 St. Patrick's Symposium was "Talking Irish," during which the nature of Irish identity, economic success and the future was discussed. Since 1996, there has been a greater emphasis on celebrating and projecting a fluid and inclusive notion of "Irishness" rather than an identity based around traditional religious or ethnic allegiance. The week around Saint Patrick's Day usually involves Irish speakers using more Irish during seachtain na Gaeilge ("Irish Week").

Shamrock ("three-leaf clover")Many Irish people still wear a bunch of shamrock on their lapels or caps on this day or green, white, and orange badges (after the colors of the Irish flag). Girls traditionally wear green in their hair. Artists draw shamrock signs on people's cheek as a cultural sign, including American Tourists.

And although Saint Patrick's Day has the colour green as their theme, one little known fact is that it was once blue that was the colour of this day

The biggest celebrations on the island of Ireland outside Dublin are in Downpatrick, Northern Ireland, where Saint Patrick was buried following his death on March 17, 493. In 2004, according to Down District Council, the week-long St. Patrick's Festival had over 2000 participants and 82 floats, bands, and performers, and was watched by over 30,000 people.

The day is celebrated by the Church of Ireland as a Christian festival, Saint Patrick's Day as a celebration of Irish culture was rarely acknowledged by Northern Irish loyalists, this was due to the fact that they had been excluded around the world as only the flag of The Republic of Ireland and symbols which are seen as exclusively Republican were used to represent people celebrating, and this was seen as a festival of Irish republicanism. The Belfast City Council recently agreed to give public funds to its parade for the first time; previously the parade was funded privately.[citation needed] Unlike the New York St. Patrick's Day Parade, which is co-ordinated by the Ancient Order of Hibernians, the Belfast parade is based on equality and only the flag of St. Patrick is supposed to be used as a symbol of the day to prevent it being seen as a time which is exclusively for Republicans and Nationalists. This allowed both Unionists and Nationalists to celebrate the day together, however despite this a few Republicans set up stalls selling Republic of Ireland flags and badges and other republican memorabilia. Most people in Northern Ireland from both Nationalist and Unionist traditions wish to have St. Patrick's day designated a National holiday throughout Northern Ireland, as it is currently only a Bank Holiday.

Since the 1990s, Irish Taoisigh have sometimes attended special functions either on Saint Patrick's Day or a day or two earlier, in the White House, where they present shamrock to the President of the United States. A similar presentation is made to the Speaker of the House. Originally only representatives of the Republic of Ireland attended, but since the mid-1990s all major Political parties in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland are invited, with the attendance including the representatives of the Irish government, the Ulster Unionist Party, the Social Democratic and Labour Party, Sinn Féin and others. No Northern Irish parties were invited for these functions in 2005. In recent years, it is common for the entire Irish government to be abroad representing the country in various parts of the world. In 2003, the President of Ireland celebrated the holiday in Sydney, the Taoiseach was in Washington, while other Irish government members attended ceremonies in New York City, Boston, San Francisco, San Jose, Savannah, Chicago, Philadelphia, San Diego, New Zealand, Hong Kong, South Africa, Korea, Japan, and Brazil.

Saint Patrick's Day parades in Ireland date from the late 19th century, originating in the growing sense of Irish nationalism (The first parade did not begin in Ireland but in the United States – see below.)

In Canada

The longest-running Saint Patrick's Day parade in Canada occurs each year in Montreal. The parades have been held in continuity since 1824; however, St. Patrick's Day itself has been celebrated in Montreal as far back as 1759 by the Irish soldiers of the Montreal Garrison, following the British conquest of New France.

In Canada, Saint Patrick's Day is an official holiday only in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Some groups, notably Guinness, have lobbied to make Saint Patrick's Day a federal (national) holiday.

In Great Britain

In Great Britain, the late Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (the Queen Mother) used to present bowls of shamrock flown over from Ireland to members of the Irish Guards, a regiment in the British Army consisting primarily of Irishmen from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. In 2002, London mayor Ken Livingstone organized an annual Saint Patrick's Day parade which takes place on weekends around the 17th, usually in Trafalgar Square.

Another tradition is the consumption of large amounts of Guinness in the hope of getting a "Guinness Hat,"[citation needed] a hat that pubs give away after a certain amount of the beverage has been consumed. The horse racing at the Cheltenham Festival attracts large numbers of Irish people, both residents of Britain and many who travel from Ireland, and usually coincides with Saint Patrick's Day.

The largest Saint Patrick's Day parade in the UK is held in Birmingham[citation needed] over a two mile route through the city centre. The organisers describe it as the third biggest parade in the world after Dublin and New York. [3] Other Saint Patrick's Day parades take place around the country including in London where the largest minority community is Irish. The Lanarkshire town of Coatbridge where the majority of the town's population are of Irish descent also has a day of celebration and parades in the town centre.

In The United States

Irish-American immigrants brought Saint Patrick's Day to the United States. The first civic and public celebration of Saint Patrick's Day in the 13 colonies took place in Boston, Massachusetts in 1737. The first celebration of Saint Patrick's Day in New York City was held at the Crown and Thistle Tavern in 1756. In 1780, General George Washington, who commanded soldiers of Irish descent in the Continental Army, allowed his troops a holiday on March 17. This event became known as The St. Patrick's Day Encampment of 1780.

Today, Saint Patrick's Day is widely celebrated in the United States by Irish and non-Irish alike. Many people, regardless of ethnic background, wear green-colored clothing and items. Traditionally, those who are caught not wearing green are pinched.

Many parades are held to celebrate the holiday. Details vary. In New Orleans, Louisiana, the parades include the influence of New Orleans Mardi Gras, with float riders throwing spectators strings of beads, cabbages, and potatoes. Perhaps the smallest notable parade World's Shortest St. Patrick's Day Parade, is said to take place in Hot Springs, Arkansas in the United States annually held on historic Bridge Street which became famous in the 1940s when Ripley’s Believe It or Not designated it “The Shortest Street in the World.” Boulder, Colorado claims to have the shortest parade, which is also less than a single city block.

The New York parade has become the largest Saint Patrick's Day parade in the world, outside Ireland. In 2006 more than 150,000 marchers participated in it, including bands, firefighters, military and police groups, county associations, emigrant societies, and social and cultural clubs and was watched by close to 2 million spectators lining the streets. The parade marches up 5th Avenue in Manhattan and is always led by the U.S. 69th Infantry Regiment. New York politicians - or those running for office - are always found prominently marching in the parade.[8] Former New York City Mayor Ed Koch once proclaimed himself "Ed O'Koch" for the day, and he continues to don an Irish sweater and march every year, even though he is no longer in office.

The New York parade has been dogged with controversy in recent years as its organizers have banned Irish gays and lesbians from marching as a group. Gay rights groups have fought in court to obtain the right to march alongside other organizations. The gay groups and their sympathizers protested loudly in numerous ways. [9] Many years protesters would lay down in the middle of the street at the start of the parade route and were arrested when they refused to move. In the late 1980s such arrests averaged several hundred per year, but had dwindled to a dozen or less annually by the early 2000s.[citation needed] A tradition has begun in Queens of organizing a parade the week before the official Saint Patrick's Day parade. The Queens parade is open to all organizations wishing to march.

The parade is organized and run by the Ancient Order of Hibernians.[citation needed] For many years, the St. Patrick's Day Parade was the primary public function of the Ancient Order of Hibernians. On occasion the order has appointed controversial Irish republican figures (some of whom were barred from the U.S.) to be its Grand Marshal.[citation needed] They also have asserted their right to ban gays and lesbians from the New York parade.

The New York parade is moved to the previous Saturday (March 16) in years where March 17 is a Sunday. The event is also moved on the rare occasions when, due to Easter falling on a very early date, March 17 would land in Holy Week. This last occurred in 1913. That year the parade was held on Saturday, March 15, because Easter was on March 23 (making March 17 the Monday of Holy Week). This same scenario is scheduled to arise again in 2008, when Easter will also fall on March 23. In many other American cities (such as San Francisco), the parade is always held on the Sunday before March 17, regardless of the liturgical calendar.

Some cities paint the traffic stripe of their parade routes green. Others, including Chicago, dye major rivers green. Savannah also dyes its downtown city fountains green.

The longest-running Saint Patrick's Day celebrations in the U.S. are:

Boston, Massachusetts, since 1737
New York City, since 1756
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, since 1771
Morristown, New Jersey, since 1780
Savannah, Georgia, since 1813
Carbondale, Pennsylvania, since 1833
Chicago, Illinois, since 1843
New Haven, Connecticut, since 1845
San Francisco, California, since 1852
Scranton, Pennsylvania, since 1862
Cleveland, Ohio, since 1867
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, since 1869
Kansas City, Missouri, since 1873

Although the baseball season usually is still in the spring training phase when St. Patrick's day rolls around, some teams such as the Chicago White Sox and Boston Red Sox, wear green uniforms for the occasion.

Irish Bars

By Thomas Morva

Irish bars are ideal places to enjoy your favorite drinks, and laze away the hours with friends. Today, Irish bars have become one of the popular freak-out destinations among people of all age groups in America. Almost all cities in America have at least a few Irish bars. Most of the Irish bars are theme type bars, and come adjoined with hotels, restaurants, and inns.

Among all the states in the USA, San Francisco holds the largest number of Irish bars. Little Shamrock, Shannon Arms, and Molly Malone's Irish Pub are some of the frequently visited bars in San Francisco. The Auld Dubliner, O'Brien's on Wilshire, Finn McCool's, Tom Bergin's, Patrick Molloy's, Sonny McLean's, McMurphy's Tavern, Irish Times, and T.S. McHugh's Irish Pub and Restaurant are some of the famous Irish bars in other major cities in America. You have smoking and non-smoking Irish bars.

Without an assorted selection of Irish whiskey no Irish bar is complete. Irish whiskey is considered one the earliest distilled beverages. Bushmills, Jameson Whiskey,

John Powers and Sons, Middleton, Tullamore Dew, Clontarf, Locke's, Kilbeggen, Dunphys, Kanppogue, Red Breast, Coleraine, Cooley, Crested Ten, Inishowen, Magilligan, and Tyrconnell are some of the brands of Irish whiskey. Among these Jameson, Connemara, Tullamore Dew, and Tyrconnell are considered the most standard Irish whiskeys. Other than Irish whiskey, Irish bars are also the best destinations to taste world quality shandy.

Most Irish bars serve a range of traditional Irish fares for breakfast, brunch, lunch, and dinner. Famous Irish delicacies like Irish stew, Ulster fry, and champ can be tasted in most of the Irish bars in America. Apart from Irish delicacies, the Irish bars also serve an array of appetizers, salads, and sandwiches.

Irish bars are the best places where repertoire music ranging from traditional Irish music to popular rock and jazz can be enjoyed with your drinks. Some, Irish bars also provide facilities for banquets, parties, and celebrations.

An Irish bar is not only a place to satisfy your thirst, but also an Irish cultural center. There is no better way to feel the depth of Irish culture than to visit an Irish bar.

Bars provides detailed information on Bars, Home Bars, Oxygen Bars, Sports Bars and more. Bars is affiliated with Outdoor Bar Stools.

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St Patrick's Day Recipes

Traditional Irish Recipes
By Marius Bezuidenhout

Traditional Irish Stew

Serves 4
8 lamb chops
Salt and pepper to taste
1 tablespoon vegetable oil
1 Bouquet Garni
1 lb potatoes, (3 to 4 medium)
2 cups finely shredded cabbage
1 medium onion, chopped
1 large leek, sliced
12 small white onions
1/3 lb celery, diced
1/3 lb frozen peas
Fresh chopped parsley for garnish

Season chops with salt and pepper. Heat oil in saucepan wide enough to hold all chops in a single layer. Brown on both sides. Spoon off fat and add enough water to cover chops. Bring to a boil and add the Bouquet Garni. Lower heat and simmer.
Meanwhile, peel potatoes and shape into bite sized rounds. Chop trimmings from potatoes into small pieces. Add potatoes, trimmings, cabbage, onion, well-rinsed leek, white onions and celery to chops and liquid. Simmer 20 minutes and then add peas. Add a little more water if needed during cooking. Simmer 10 minutes more or until potatoes are tender. Season with more salt and pepper, if desired.
Garnish with parsley and serve.

Corned Beef & Cabbage - an Irish Tradition

Serves 8
5 pound corned beef brisket
1 large onion stuck with 6 whole cloves
6 carrots, peeled and sliced
8 potatoes, peeled and cubed
1 teaspoon dried thyme
1 small bunch parsley
1 large cabbage, cut in quarters and cored
Horseradish Sauce

Put beef in a large pot and cover with cold water. Add all other ingredients except cabbage and bring to a boil with the lid off the pot. Turn to simmer and cook for 3 hours. Skim fat from top as it rises. Remove the thyme, parsley and onion. Add cabbage. Simmer for 20 minutes until cabbage is cooked. Remove the meat and cut into pieces. Place on center of a large platter. Strain the cabbage and season it heavily with black pepper. Surround the beef with the cabbage, carrots and potatoes. Serve with horseradish sauce.

Horseradish Sauce

Serves 8
1/2 pint heavy cream
4-5 tablespoons finely grated horseradish

Whip cream until it stand in peaks. Fold in horseradish.

Click here for more Delicious Free Recipes

Some Irish Recipes to Celebrate St. Patrick's Day

St. Patrick’s Day is March 17th, and it is a “day for wearing green” and other Irish traditions. Even though the patron saint St. Patrick was not born in Ireland, everything that is Green (which symbolizes spring and the prospering of the crops), fun and Irish can be worn or used to celebrate this holiday. And it is a holiday for all ages. Here are some entertaining ideas to use on St. Patrick’s Day. A few drops of green food coloring goes into anything you might want green, even a mug of draft beer. Anything made with Irish cream or Irish whiskey has the Irish spirit, too.

Authentic Corned beef and cabbage
Corned beef brisket, about 4 lbs.
1 juice orange
18-20 whole cloves
1 tsp. whole yellow mustard seeds
1/2 tsp. caraway seeds
1/2 tsp. whole black peppercorns
1/2 tsp. whole coriander

Put corned beef brisket into large pot for cooking. Take cloves and insert them, then sprinkle remaining spices on. Cover brisket with water, bring to boil, then simmer for 3 hours or until tender.

3 lbs. small potatoes, peeled
2 1/2 lbs. carrots, peeled and cut into large pieces
1 medium head cabbage

About 40 minutes before beef is finished, boil a large pot of water and cook potatoes and carrots. Add cabbage about 10 minutes before you're ready to serve as it doesn't need to cook long. Drain vegetables.

Arrange meat and vegetables on a platter and serve with your favorite mustards.

St. Patrick Day Cookie Pops (for the kids to make)

Box of Vanilla Wafers
Box of Popsicle sticks
Vanilla or chocolate frosting; or Peanut butter
Various decorations – chocolate chips, icing packs, assorted green candies, green sugar sprinkles, ju ju bees, sprinkles, etc.

Spread out ½ of the vanilla wafers, with the flat sides up on the plate. Take the vanilla, chocolate icing, or peanut butter and spread across flat surface. Next, take a Popsicle stick and lay it down with the end in the middle of the cookie. Top with another vanilla wafer to make a sandwich.

Now the kids can get creative! Turn the cookie pop into a green shamrock; apply vanilla icing and draw with green icing pack; make a pot of gold with candies; anything you want. They make a great treat for the kids to take to school!

Easy Hot Whiskey Punch (for the adults) Serves 1

1 measure of whiskey
2 teaspoons white sugar
4-6 cloves
2 slices fresh lemon
7 oz. boiling water

Put whiskey, sugar cloves and lemon slices into a strong glass. 2. Pour on the boiling water until the sugar has dissolved. 3. Sip contentedly by a blazing fire.

Irish Scones

1/2 cup butter
4 cups flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 cup sugar
1 egg
1 cup milk

Note: You can add raisins, dates or other dried fruits, if desired. Makes about 18 scones. >P> Preheat oven to 425°F.

In a large bowl, combine butter and flour until crumbly. Add baking powder, salt and sugar.

In a separate bowl, beat egg and milk. Mix into dry ingredients to make a dough.

Turn onto floured surface and roll to one-inch thickness. With a cookie cutter or the bottom of a drinking glass, cut dough into 2-inch rounds. Place on greased cookie sheet, about one inch apart and bake for 15 minutes.

When serving your Irish creations don’t forget an Irish toast to bless the meal!

About The Author: Niall Cinneide loves to celebrate St Patrick's Day. He publishes news, views and information about St Patricks Day at St Patricks Information. http://www.St-Patricks.info

St Patrick's Day Nation, Facts and More...

Ireland - The Small Country With A Big Influence
By Joseph Donegal

What common link binds President Ronald Reagan, English Poet Laureate Cecil Day-Lewis, founder of The Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet Company Dame Ninette de Valois, movie star John Wayne and tennis champion John McEnroe?

The answer is, they all have their roots in Ireland.

Irish writer, George Bernard Shaw, put it cruelly -- but accurately: "As long as Ireland produces men with sense enough to leave her, she does not exist in vain.".

Migrants, generally, tend to be those with that extra bit of dynamism. And it's certainly true Irish-born people or -- more accurately -- people of Irish descent, have had a disproportional influence in many fields, particularly writing and the arts.

Nor are politics a forbidden field to Irish descendants and the list of American Presidents contain a high proportion of members who can trace their ancestory back to the Emerald Isle.

Most famous of these, of course is President John F. Kennedy, whose ancestors hail from Waterford. President Ronald Reagan took the opportunity on one visit to Europe to visit his ancestral home in County Tipperary. Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney is another highly placed politician who is proud of his Irish roots.

Even the White House was designed by an Irishman, architect James Hoban.

The Irish love of words, so ably demonstrated by both President Kennedy and the Great Communicator, President Reagan, has spawned many writers. Chief among these is, of course, George Bernard Shaw and James Joyce. Both of these famous writers spent the larger part of their lives away from Ireland. In fact, so great was the hemorrhage of artists and writers from Ireland that, in an attempt to stem the flood, the Irish government introduced a special tax free status for writers and artists.

But the main barrier to writing in Ireland remained the moral and religious constraints rather than the tax regime. So, current writers, like novelist Edna O'Brien, still live in self-imposed exile, away from Ireland, although they never cease to think of Ireland.

Copyright 2006 Joseph Donegal and The-Best-Of-Ireland.com

Joseph Donegal has a life-long interest in his Irish roots and the history of Ireland and its people.

You'll find more articles on Ireland at his web site http://www.The-Best-Of-Ireland.com

Celtic Wedding Jewelry

By Mary Anne Winslow

Baileys is one of the most popular brands existing. Not many people know that the same company produces Baileys Cream, Guiness and Smirnoff. In this article we will take a closer look at the company and at the market it operates in.

1.1 Baileys Irish Cream is one of the brands owned by Diageo PLC. Diageo PLC is the parent organisation of Baileys and is the worlds leading premium drinks business. Diageo use different product branding and not corporate identity.

Baileys have extended their portfolio with a family branding strategy.

• Baileys Irish Cream

• Baileys Glide

• Baileys Minis

• Bailey's Latte, moving the brand firmly into the expanding coffee market.

Diageos other brands include:

• Smirnoff

• Guiness

• Johnnie Walker

• J&B

The Product

Baileys Irish Cream was launched in 1974 and is now sold worldwide. Baileys is now the 12th bestselling liqueur brand by volume in the world. (Baileys website, 2003)

In 2003 Baileys had a 10% increase in volume growth and an increase in 13% net sale growth (baileys website) This was due to the global investment and marketing strategies as well as consumer led innovation which broadened the range of Baileys drinking occasions.

Baileys is sold everywhere throughout the year and served in many different ways to all age groups. This versatility makes it the best selling liqueur, by both volume and value, all year round.

Research indicated that Baileys used to be perceived as a special occasion drink. In order to drive future growth this perception needed to be changed and to be drank on more informal occasions. Baileys intended to reposition the drink in 2000 to achieve these goals. The above the line-spend was increased by 40% to support the brand.

Baileys successfully repositioned itself from being an old lady's drink into a young woman's drink, both at home and in the bars. Baileys implemented attitudinal change through sexier advertisements and by sponsoring SATC to change their target audience. They changed performance beliefs by portraying the brand as fun, risqué and a bit naughty.

Bailey's Irish Cream became the bestselling spirit by value in the off-trade in the run-up to Christmas 2001, even surpassing Bell's whisky in the 12-week period prior to the festivities.

In early 2002 the company stated that it would be doubling output of the brand within five years, at a cost of €64 million, with a second production operation in Belfast, taking capacity up to 120 million bottles each year.

Bailey's is accountablefor 6% of all Irish food and drink exports.

New Baileys Glide long drink has been launched on the British market with a £6 million marketing budget, in addition to the £30 million marketing budget for Baileys Original Irish Cream. Baileys launched this new range because their consumer research identified an opportunity to extend Baileys Original Irish Cream further into social occasions by developing a longer, lighter alternative.

Bailey's stated aim is to become absolutely dominant and a year-round beverage. Baileys accounted for 52.8% out of the 56% spent of the advertising on cream liqueurs in 2001. The old adage 'sex sells', combined with provocative promotions, has been taken on board by the liqueur brand owners as one of the most successful ways in which to appeal to the younger generation, i.e through Sex and The City.

Baileys and Tia Maria consistently spend more money above the line than all other brands together - a combined spend of 80% of all ad-spend on liqueurs in 2001.

Baileys attracts more customers each year than any other drink in the UK.

Baileys Irish Cream can count only a fifth of its consumers as regular drinkers, however attracts more consumers each year in the UKthan any other drink.

A nation wide survey conducted by Baileys reveals that single life in the city is a desirable state for SASSY women. (Single, Affluent, Successful, Sensual and Young). Greater financial independence is enabling them to abandon the traditional routes of marriage and motherhood.

• 60% of respondents cited the desire to "have as much fun as possible" as the reason for avoiding the aisle. This promotes the behaviour which is seen on Sex and The City which is sponsored by Baileys and therefore there is an association between the two.

• SASSY women spend their money primarily on themselves and their social lives.

• SASSY women say they dress to impress (and even intimidate) their female peers, Bailey's has links with London fashion week by sponsoring Markus Lupfer's Autumn/Winter Collection. His collection is aimed at young women who are confident and self assured with a strong sense of individuality. This is the audience that Baileys is trying to reach.

The Market

Baileys has over 50% of the market in the UK Cream Liqueur market.

The cream sector is driving the entire liqueur market. To date the cream sector has predominantly been the preserve of women in the age 35+ group. But it is important for market growth to ensure that cream liqueurs attract younger consumers from both genders.

Shooter drinking has been growing in popularity in recent years, particularly among young men. Market is reliant on trial and word of mouth to spread the message. Cream liqueurs such as Baileys are popular as shots among younger people. The relatively high price per litre of shooters reflects their dominance in the on-trade.

In 2001 Baileys Irish Cream had the leading liqueur brand share in the UK off-trade by volume and value. They also held a major brand liqueur share in the on-trade in the UK. Baileys had a 16% point change from 1997-2001 in the Cream Liqueur brand shares by volume.

Baileys Irish cream is the leading brand by some considerable margin and has increased its market share in the period stated. It is noticeable that there is a tendancy for more women to show a preference for cream-based offerings, while men are more likely to enjoy whisky-based variants.

Baileys market divided into demographic subgroups

• Women consume more liqueurs than men and especially cream liqueurs. This helps explain the success of Bailey's, which is drunk by 28% of the population - 23% of males and 33% of females.

• The brand's dominance is reflected in the figure for other cream liqueurs, which are consumed by relatively few (7% - not tabulated).

• Consumption is heaviest among 25-34-year-olds (44%) followed by 18-24s (36%) and 35-44s (30%).

• The lifestage data confirms the preference of younger drinkers, with 35% of the pre-/no family group and 36% of families drinking Baileys. Baileys successfully targets these groups through there ongoing communications campaign.

In terms of non-cream liqueurs, Tia Maria is the clear leader and major competitor to Baileys, as reflected in the market data

Mary Anne Winslow is a member of Essay Writing Servicecounselling department team and a dissertation writing consultant. Contact her to get free counselling on custom essay writing.


10 Facts You Might Not Know About St. Patrick's Day

The tradition of St. Patrick’s Day began hundreds of years ago when a boy in Roman England was captured and taken to Ireland as a captive where he found God. It is said that St. Patrick could hear from the angels, and that he had raised people from the dead. He was a very active missionary throughout Ireland for 30 years, and that is why he is called the patron saint of Ireland. There have been many legends attached to this saint, and they have lasted throughout the centuries. This holiday began as a Holy Day in the Catholic Church, but over the years this religious Catholic saint’s day has turned into a more secular celebration of the upcoming new spring.

Here are a few facts for St. Patrick’s Day:

- March 17th, the day of celebration, is the day of Patrick’s death.

- St. Patrick, the patron saint of the Irish, was not from Ireland.

- Patrick was an old time missionary in Ireland during the 4th century.

- He brought many people to conversion and into the Christian religion.

- The Shamrock, symbol of St. Patrick’s Day, was a plant with three leaves that Patrick used to demonstrate to the pagans the trinity of God – Father, Son and Holy Ghost.

- Maewyn is the name St. Patrick was born with. His name was changed by the Bishop in a monastery in France, after he escaped his captivity. He was not religious at all when he was a child.

- The first St. Paddy’s day parade in America was in 1737, 40 years before the Revolutionary War.

- The first day of spring is March 21st and this could be the reason St. Patrick’s Day celebrations have caught on so big.

- Everyone turns Irish for a day – just wear green, the sign of life.

- Irish dishes include Corned beef and cabbage, Irish stew, Irish cream pie, Irish soda bread, scones, Irish cheese bread, and all of these would be a good choice on St. Patrick’s Day.

There are many traditions and legends that have been passed down through the generations, so even the barest of facts have gotten confused. It is not even certain exactly when Patrick was born, the actual date varies about 30 years in early 300 AD but the day of his death is certain, March 17, and that is the important day.

So whether you are celebrating the life of a glorified Catholic saint or the oncoming spring and all the new growth and new life possibilities that a new life can encompass, it really doesn’t matter. Wear something Green, grab a green hat, give someone a shamrock and join in the parade. Good luck and Blessings are meant for all!

About The Author: Niall Cinneide loves to celebrate St Patrick's Day. He publishes news, views and information about St Patricks Day at St Patricks Information. http://www.St-Patricks.info

St. Patrick's Day Traditions

On March 17, 431AD, when Patrick of Ireland died, a new holiday was born. Though the celebrations began in the 700's as a traditional Catholic Holy Day, over the years St. Patrick's Day has become more a secular holiday which marks the beginning for spring. The official date for the beginning of spring is March 21, and this also supports the tradition of wearing green. Green is the color for life and growth and if you desire good luck and on this day, you should "be wearin' a touch o' the green!

The spreading of Christianity and Catholicism to the Irish of the 4th and 5th century is mainly attributed to St. Patrick, who received the name of Patrick while in seminary after his captivity in Ireland. Traditions that originated back in the 7th century have changed from being strictly religious to a St. Patrick's Day where "everybody is Irish for the day". Catholics will start the day off at early mass which signifies the beginning of the holiday. Tradition has it that St. Patrick often used a Shamrock to explain to pagans the concept of the Trinity. The trinity is the Father, Son and Holy Ghost which Christians know all stem from the same God – three in one like the Shamrock plant - three leaves from one stem. If you are wearing a shamrock you can claim Good Luck or Blessings! The tradition of the Shamrock still remains though most don't know the reason behind it; but it still means Good Luck! to whoever wears it or receives it.

St. Patrick's Day was first observed as a holiday in the United States in 1737. The US was still under the authority of the British because the Revolutionary War that gave freedom didn't even start until 1776. So even though many of the Irish had not yet arrived to our shores yet, St. Patrick's Day was still considered a very important holiday. Queen's NY started the first parade in honor of St. Patrick and as a result, St. Patrick's Day parades are popular all across the country. Parades are a great way to celebrate this day!

If you need a tad bit more good luck to start your season off, invite a Leprechaun to accompany you throughout the day. They are packed with good luck – and are kind of cute, to boot!

Of course, one of the most popular traditions that goes only with St. Patrick's Day is the drinking of particularly green ale. Green is the color of the day! For this holiday, there should be no bar or tavern which does not add some green food coloring to a keg of draft beer to serve mugs of tinted beer to its customers. And of course Irish cream and Irish Whiskey ought to be available too, but make sure the kids get green lemonade or 7UP!

St. Patrick's Day is a day of fun for all ages.

About The Author: Niall Cinneide loves to celebrate St Patrick's Day. He publishes news, views and information about St Patricks Day at St Patricks Information. http://www.St-Patricks.info

Solve The Mystery Of Your English, Scottish And Irish Roots

Genealogy is one of the fastest growing hobbies as many people ask who am I? Where are my roots? For many those roots lie in the United Kingdom and the countries of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.

Huge numbers of people can trace their family tree back to an immigrant who once made the perilous journey across the Atlantic to the New World. 9.2 million US citizens of Scottish ancestry and 30million of Irish ancestry, or the half million Australians of Scottish descent. But how can you go about finding your roots in the United Kingdom.

The first port of call is always what we KNOW already; this may be a grandparent’s birth certificate but could very well be your own birth certificate. Its best to start from a point which you know - as it makes the job considerably easier and you can verify your findings as you go further and further into the past. Too many people start by looking for James Smith from Kirkcaldy in the 1880's and to be frank its almost impossible to pin down exactly the right person from such vague information.

The next step is to look into the statutory records. After 1855 in the United Kingdom it became compulsory to report every birth death and marriage. As such the statutory index is compiled in the main from the paper indexes to the civil registers of births implemented in 1855 under the Births, Deaths & Marriages (Scotland) Act, 1854. The General Register Office for Scotland in Edinburgh holds a complete set of statutory birth registers for all the registration districts in Scotland since 1855. Each birth index entry includes: year of registration, surname, forename(s) and sex of the child, district and county of registration and the GROS references (see below).

Every death index entry reports the year of registration, surname, forename(s), sex and age (see below) of the deceased, the maiden surname of the deceased, the surname of the deceased’s mother (1855-1858 see below), district and county in which the death was registered and the GROS references

and finally every marriage index includes details of year of registration, surname and forename(s) of the male, surname and forename(s) of the female, district and county where the marriage was registered and the GROS references.

BUT these can only get you so far. Sadly this is about as far back as you can be guaranteed to get back (beware services which guarantee going further back into your ancestry than this). It may, and is often possible to go farther back into your family’s genealogy using old parish registers (kept by the local churches about the people within their area), Wills and testaments (and the Scottish general record office website http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk carries some of these going back to 1513).

Websites like those of Family Research ( http://www.lineages.co.uk ) and British-Genealogy.com ( http://www.british-genealogy.com/ ) feature forums and articles which can be used to find and share information and should be used frequently. In addition the visitors to these sites can often help with advice and help.

About the Author: In 1997 Chris launched the first version of a site which has become Family Research - British, English, Irish and Scottish genealogy news and information - http://www.lineages.co.uk featuring regularly updated articles on everything to do with tracing your ancestry it has become a highly popular destination for many genealogists.

Celtic Wedding Jewelry

Nine Good Irish Quotes and Proverbs

1. "There is no language like the Irish for soothing and quieting."~~ By John Millington Synge~~

2. "St. Patrick's Day is an enchanted time -- a day to begin transforming winter's dreams into summer's magic."~~ By Adrienne Cook.~~

3. "Ireland is rich in literature that understands a soul's yearnings, and dancing that understands a happy heart."~~ By Margaret Jackson.~~

4. "Only Irish coffee provides in a single glass all four essential food groups: alcohol, caffeine, sugar, and fat."~~ By Alex Levine.~~

5. "Maybe it's bred in the bone, but the sound of pipes is a little bit of heaven to some of us." ~~ By Nancy O'Keeefe.~~

6. "In Ireland the inevitable never happens and the unexpected constantly occurs." ~~ By Sir John Pentland Mahaffy.~~

7. "Long life to you, a wet mouth, and death in Ireland"

8. "A good laugh and a long sleep are the two best cures"

9. "I believe in the sun when it's not shining, I believe in love even when I feel it not, I believe what whiskey will not cure, there is no cure for."

Many of the quotes that are attributed to Ireland are those that are full of dealing with strife and problems. For many individuals in Ireland’s history, their lives were anything but easy. They struggled to find food, homes and shelter many times. And, when they had that there was disease ravishing them. For those in Ireland, many quotes are very religious in nature as well. The goal of each is to inspire or just to learn to deal with the things that were put at their feet.

About The Author: Niall Cinneide loves to celebrate St Patrick's Day. He publishes news, views and information about St Patricks Day at St Patricks Information. http://www.St-Patricks.info

Boxty (Irish Griddle Cakes)

Being of the Irish persuasion, I offer this great recipe for Boxty. Boxty is a traditional Irish dish, and has been around for many a year. I especially like this dish with butter and a dollop of maple syrup for my breakfast. I do not have the usual "required" nutritional evaluation, but in my way of thinking, I can live without it to just have the pleasure of enjoying this fine old traditional side dish.

Boxty (Irish Potato Griddle Cakes)

8 Servings (Halve this recipe for smaller families)
1/2 lb raw potato
1/2 lb potato,mashed
1/2 lb all-purpose flour
1 Milk
1 Egg
Salt and pepper to taste

Grate raw potatoes and mix with the cooked mashed potatoes. Add salt, pepper and flour. Beat egg and add to mixture with just enough milk to make a batter that will drop from a spoon. Drop by tablespoonfuls onto a hot griddle or frying pan. Cook over a moderate heat for 3-4 minutes on each side. Serve with a tart apple sauce: or as part of an Ulster Fry, with fried bacon, fried sausage, fried eggs, fried black pudding, fried bread, fried soda bread.

An old poem says: . Boxty on the griddle, boxty in the pan, if you can't make boxty, you'll never get a man. (The accuracy of the poem is uncertain.)

About the Author: Alden Smith is an award winning author who is the webmaster of All The Best Recipes. Visit his website for a free 660 page cookbook of Secret Famous Recipes. AllTheBestRecipes.com

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